Journal of Water Security, Volume 3 (2017)

DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERWORKS IN FINLAND

Jenni Meirami Ikonen, Anna-Maria Hokajärvi, Jatta Heikkinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Robert Ciszek, Mikko Kolehmainen, Anna Pursiainen, Ari Kauppinen, Jaana Kusnetsov, Eila Torvinen, Ilkka T. Miettinen
Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland; Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland

Abstract

Physico-chemical and microbiological water quality in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) of five waterworks in Finland with different raw water sources and treatment processes was explored. Water quality was monitored during four seasons with on-line equipment and bulk water samples were analysed in laboratory. Seasonal changes in the water quality were more evident in DWDSs of surface waterworks compared to the ground waterworks and artificially recharging ground waterworks (AGR). Between seasons, temperature changed significantly in every system but pH and EC changed only in one AGR system. Seasonal change was seen also in the absorbance values of all systems. The concentration of microbially available phosphorus (MAP, μg PO₄-P/l) was the highest in drinking water originating from the waterworks supplying groundwater. Total assimilable organic carbon (AOC, μg AOC-C/l) concentrations were significantly different between the DWDSs other than between the two AGR systems. This study reports differences in the water quality between surface and ground waterworks using a wide set of parameters commonly used for monitoring. The results confirm that every distribution system is unique, and the water quality is affected by environmental factors, raw water source, treatment methods and disinfection.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15544/jws.2017.004

Keyword(s): drinking water, on-line monitoring, raw water source, seasonal change


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Journal of Water Security eISSN 2345-0363

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License. Responsible editor: Laima Taparauskiene.